1. For most people, the religious revival of the eighteenth century focused on
A. individual study of the scriptures.
B. feelings and enthusiasm.
C. returning to organized religions that had successfully dealt with public corruption.
D. a scientific and reasoned approach to faith.
2. The Treaty of Westphalia of 1648
A. ended the wars of religion through a policy of tolerance.
B. came close to establishing the power of the Roman Church in England.
C. gave rulers the right to impose their religion upon their subjects.
D. ended civil wars throughout Europe.
3. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Japan was the world's leading producer of
4. Probably the most lasting contribution of Napoleon's rule was
A. his understanding of the role of the military.
B. his legal code.
C. abolishing the aristocracy and subordinating the church to the state.
D. redrawing the map of Europe.
5. For the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham, social institutions should be evaluated on the basis of their
A. ability to provide services at the lowest cost.
B. imposing minimal intrusions into citizens' lives.
C. success in providing the greatest good to the greatest number.
D. concern for the rights of the individual over social utility.
6. Quinine was essential for the expansion of imperial powers because of its
A. value as a base for cosmetics.
B. usefulness in fighting malaria.
C. value for flavoring and preserving food.
D. role as a military weapon.
7. Who wrote, “Here is the slave, there is the master; there is the wealth of some, here is the poverty of most . . . Here humanity attains its most complete development and its most brutish”?
A. Samuel Smiles
B. William Blake
C. Karl Marx
D. Alexis de Tocqueville
8. Comte de Gobineau, a French anthropologist, argued that human beings
A. could be classified by race, with the French at the top and Asians at the bottom.
B. could be classified by race, with the whites at the top and blacks at the bottom.
C. were all the same, regardless of race.
D. could be classified by race, but non-Europeans who adopted European culture could evolve to a higher state of being.
9. Constitutionalism is best defined as
A. a set of beliefs that guarantees equal rights to all the citizens of a state.
B. a doctrine that the state is founded on rules established by citizens and rulers to which all are bound.
C. the creation of a specific document or constitution.
D. a document that outlines democratic principles.
10. China began to industrialize in the 1860s due to
A. economic decline in the face of European expansionism in Asia.
B. defeat by Britain and the decline of its tea market.
C. a peasant rebellion and foreign military occupation.
D. its failure to defeat Japan and Britain.
11. Who ruled over Babylon's last era of greatness?
C. Nebuchadnezzar II