2.2 In the following descriptions of a study, confounding is present. Describe the explanatory and confounding variable in the study and how the confounding may invalidate the conclusions of the study. Furthermore, suggest how you would change the study to eliminate the effect of the confounding variable.
a. A hospital introduces a new screening procedure to identify patients suffering from a stroke so that a new blood clot medication can be given to the patient during the crucial period of 12 hours after stroke begins. The procedure appears to be very successful because in the first year of its implementation there is a higher rate of total recovery by the patients in comparison to the rate in the previous year for patients admitted to the hospital.
b. A high school mathematics teacher is convinced that a new software program will improve math scores for students taking the SAT. As a method of evaluating her theory, she offers the students an opportunity to use the software on the school’s computers during a 1-hour period after school. The teacher concludes the software is effective because the students using the software had significantly higher scores on the SAT than did the students who did not use the software.