2-3 pages double spaced. No quotations
1. What is Levitsky and Ziblatt’s definition of a political outsider? How did the revised primary system in use since 1972 affect the ability of outsiders to run for president?
2. What is the “invisible primary”? Why did party gatekeepers become less influential? How did Donald Trump’s candidacy show the failure of gatekeepers?
3. How do crises aid authoritarian leaders in consolidating power?
4. Why aren’t constitutional safeguards enough to protect democracy?
5. What is the meaning of institutional forbearance? Identify several examples of constitutional hardball in the US – both recent and in history.
6.Why do Levitsky and Ziblatt consider norms to be the soft guardrails of democracy? Identify three examples of the ways Donald Trump violated democratic norms during his presidency?