Failure to do so would constitute plagiarism, whether it has been done intentionally or not. On the other hand, attributing the cited lines to designated authors makes the overall written work well-researched and substantiated. Likewise, one’s conclusions are readily accepted as grounded and objective when traceable to theories that have previously been proven and therefore have become unquestioned as to accuracy.
Furthermore, the same cited lines in any given literary piece denote the specific genre represented by the author in so writing the piece. Some types of written works require a lot of citations, while some require less. Whether or not there are specific rules about the number of citations required on the basis of number of words or pages in a paper would be a valuable knowledge for students in their need to come up with well-written reports and papers in the course of their studies.
Thus, adequate knowledge of genre analysis and the use of citation would enable students to determine the type of writing required of them, the style that they are to adopt for each paper – may it be a research paper, a reflection paper, a book review or any other written form – and the exact material references to help make the main ideas and points of the paper well-supported and clearly presented. Methods and Materials
In a paper written by Ken Hyland entitled, “Academic Attribution: Citation and the Construction of Disciplinary Knowledge”, he ranked eight disciplines or fields of knowledge as to the average frequency of the use of citations per paper and per 1,000 words. The resulting tabulation signified that “softer disciplines tend to employ more citations. ” According to their rank in terms of citations, the eight disciplines that were subject of the conducted study were sociology, marketing, philosophy, biology, applied linguistics, electronic engineering, mechanical engineering and physics (346).
This paper aims to conduct the same procedure for three fields that were not included in the study carried out by Ken Hyland: namely, neuroscience, social science and humanities. For this purpose, sample published articles in the three mentioned fields would be analyzed and the citations therein would be compared. The articles are as follows: Blockade of Nigral and Pallidal Opioid Receptors Suppresses Vacuous Chewing Movements in a Rodent Model of Tardive Dyskinesia by S. E. McCormick and A.
J. Stoessl, Effects of Lawyers’ Socio-political Attitudes on Their Judgments of Social Science in Legal Decision-Making by Richard E. Reddling and N. Dickon Reppucci, and Strangers in Academia: The Experiences of Faculty and ESL Students Across the Curriculum by Vivian Zamel. In doing the tabulation, the prevalent style and genre of written works in these three fields can then be identified, and any notable distinction, if any, can then be highlighted and analyzed. Results and Discussion
Table 1 shows the number of times the authors resorted to the use of citations throughout their written articles. The table as well gives the breakdown of the numbers of citations in the entire articles as to the specific parts. It has been said that the different uses of citation and the different methods of incorporation reflect disciplinary variations (Hyland 1999). Of the three disciplines represented by the selected written works, psychology turned out to have the highest number of citations.
Indeed, the study of psychology has such a rich collection of theories and results of examinations compiled through all these years. It should then not be surprising that most recently written statements in the field would have to give deference to a certain earlier work – and citation would be the way to do just that. To then come up with a paper in such fields whose contents would not be questioned, one effective tool in psychology would be well-referenced statements of respected figures in such field of science.